Nutrient levels in UK soil have plummeted over the years, meaning our fruits and vegetables are lacking in minerals too. How can you stop the gap?
We know that eating a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables is one of the best ways to guarantee we’re getting all the essential nutrients we need to stay healthy. But if the food we eat is lacking vital vitamins and minerals, our diet is at a disadvantage.
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Overall, magnesium in vegetables has dropped by 24%, while carrots specifically have lost 75% of this essential nutrient – you’d need to eat four carrots today to get the same amount of magnesium found in one carrot in 1940. Spinach has lost 53% of its potassium and 60% of its iron, while broccoli has lost 75% of its calcium.
Nutrient levels in fruit have also declined. These days, you would need to eat three apples or oranges to get the same iron content as from one in 1940, while ten fruits analysed for zinc – including cherries, peaches and strawberries – showed an overall loss of 27%.
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Handpicked content: How to keep the vitamins and minerals in your 'free from' diet
Experts agree we should continue to eat a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables – they are still beneficial for our health – but there are a few ways to make sure you’re getting enough vitamins and minerals:
1. Switch to organic fruit and vegThe largest-ever review of studies into the differences between organic and conventional crops by Newcastle University in 2014 concluded that organic crops were up to 60% higher in a number of key antioxidants.10 The team also found that organic crops had lower levels of pesticide residues including toxic heavy metals.
2. Go for organic meat and dairyAnother study on organic meat and milk reported in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2016 found they contain around 50% more omega-3 fatty acids.11 This most likely due to the animals eating organic grasses and grains that are rich in omega-3s, which then end up in milk and meat products.
3. Stick to seasonal produce
If you can eat local and/or seasonal fruit and vegetables, they won’t have travelled as far and so should still contain healthy nutrient levels.
4. Don’t forget about frozen
Freezing fruits and vegetables almost as soon as they are picked helps preserve their nutrient content. Adding some frozen veg to a casserole or berries to a smoothie can help increase your vitamin and mineral intake.
5. Take a multivitamin and mineral supplement
Plug any gaps by taking a full-spectrum multivitamin. The long-range nutrient study found that sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and copper were all significantly lacking in our fruit and vegetables, so any supplement should include these essential minerals.
1. McCance RA, Widdowson EM. The Mineral Depletion Of Foods Available To Us As a Nation (1940–2002) – A Review of the 6th Edition of McCance and Widdowson. Available from: http://www.mineralresourcesint.co.uk/pdf/Mineral_Depletion_of_Foods_1940_2002.pdf
2. Thomas D. The mineral depletion of foods available to us as a nation (1940-2002) a review of the 6th edition of McCance and Widdowson. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18309763
3. Mayer AM. Historical changes in the mineral content of fruits and vegetables. Available from: http://www.academia.edu/7017054/Historical_changes_in_the_mineral_content_of_fruits_and_vegetables
4. Davis D. Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition: What Is the Evidence? Available from: http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/44/1/15.full
5. Jarrell WM, Beverly RB. The dilution effect in plant nutrient studies. Available from: www.researchgate.net/publication/279436494_The_Dilution_Effect_in_Plant_Nutrient_Studies
6. Jones, RB. Effects of postharvest handling conditions and cooking on anthocyanin, lycopene, and glucosinolate content and bioavailability in fruits and vegetables. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01140670709510188
7. Vallejo F, Tomas-Barberan F, Garcia-Viguera C. Health-promoting compounds in broccoli as influenced by refrigerated transport and retail sale period. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12720387
8. Marta Zaraska. Bitter truth: How we’re making fruit and veg less healthy. Available from: www.newscientist.com/article/mg22730322-100-bitter-truth-how-were-making-fruit-and-veg-less-healthy/
9. Henry Bodkin. Just one in four adults eating their five a day. Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/03/30/just-one-four-adults-eating-five-day-nhs-reveals/
10. Baranski M. et al. Higher antioxidant concentrations and less cadmium and pesticide residues in organically-grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Available from: http://www.ncl.ac.uk/press/news/2015/10/organicvsnon-organicfood/
11. Baranski M. et al. PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26878105