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Can alcohol affect my period?

Laura Harcourt

Written byLaura Harcourt

Ms Roopa Navani

Reviewed byMs Roopa Navani

Friends enjoying some cold drinks on the weekend.
Does drinking alcohol affect your menstrual cycle? And could it be making your PMS symptoms worse? Learn more about the link between alcohol and periods.
You probably already know that drinking too much alcohol isn’t great for your health. However, did you know that your alcohol consumption could also be affecting your periods?

Many people don’t realise that how much they drink could be making their periods worse than they need to be.1 Read on to find out more.

Alcohol and period pain

Period pain is arguably one of the worst symptoms of menstruation. From a constant dull ache in your lower back to sharp cramps that take your breath away, over-the-counter pain relief can only do so much.

While you might think that period pain is something that’s fairly out of your control, you may be surprised to learn that drinking alcohol during your period – yes, even that ‘medicinal’ glass of wine – could make your period pain worse.2

Dehydration

Alcohol is a diuretic. What this means is that it encourages your body to shift extra fluid and salt. It does this by making you pee more frequently.3

Aside from the inconvenience of extra bathroom trips, this also puts you at risk of dehydration – particularly if you are drinking strong alcoholic drinks. One small-scale study shows that the stronger your drink, the greater the diuretic effect it has.3

With dehydration, there’s the possibility that it can increase the human perception of pain, so it stands to reason that being dehydrated could make period pain seem worse.4

To back this up, recent research has also found that increased water intake – so making sure you’re well hydrated – could be beneficial for reducing pain during your menstrual cycle, and potentially even the length of your period.5

Alcohol and PMS symptoms

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS as it’s better known, is the name used to describe the symptoms that you might experience in the week or so before getting your period. Nearly everyone will experience PMS at some point in their menstruating years, and some people will experience it every month.6

Some of the most common PMS symptoms include:6
  • mood swings
  • anxiety and depression
  • tiredness
  • problems sleeping
  • bloating
  • tender breasts
  • headaches
  • acne breakouts
  • greasy hair
  • changes in appetite
  • changes in your sex drive
Although alcohol is often associated with socialising and fun, there’s also a less appealing side to it.

Alcohol can affect the chemistry of the brain, causing an increase in negative chemicals and a decrease in positive ones that can lead to PMS anxiety, low mood, and even depression.7,8 This makes it likely that drinking alcohol while also suffering from PMS could make mood-related symptoms worse.8

In addition to mood disturbances, many people with PMS also find that they suffer from poor-quality sleep, which may be amplified by increased alcohol consumption.9,10

While having a glass of wine or two before bed may initially help you to fall asleep more quickly due to its relaxing qualities,11,12 some studies show that persistent alcohol consumption has been associated with chronic sleep disturbances – and these could cause you to feel more tired than usual during the day.11

In fact, there’s research that shows that drinking anything containing alcohol could increase the risk of experiencing PMS symptoms, as well as making some of them worse.13

Alcohol and endometriosis

Endometriosis is a condition that occurs when tissue that’s similar to the lining of the womb is found on other organs in the body, such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes. It’s quite common and estimated to affect up to 10% of people with periods aged 15-44.14,15

The condition can cause a range of debilitating symptoms, including painful menstrual cramps, pain during or after sex, fatigue, problems with bowel movements during a period, and heavy and/or irregular periods.14

Again, you could be forgiven for thinking that alcohol would have no bearing on endometriosis, but a strong link between the two has already been shown in a number of different studies.16,17

Studies have also found that alcohol consumption increases oestrogen levels. Oestrogen is responsible for the thickening of the lining of the uterus during your period and is thought to contribute to the production of endometriotic tissue.18

Alcohol and PCOS

PCOS, or polycystic ovary syndrome, is a very common condition that’s estimated to affect one in every ten people born female in the UK.19

PCOS affects how your ovaries work and causes problems such as irregular periods, problems getting pregnant, excessive hair growth, weight gain and more.19

There are various types of PCOS, including insulin-resistant PCOS. This is where an imbalance in your natural hormone levels causes symptoms associated with PCOS to become much worse.20 Insulin resistance is estimated to affect as many as 70% of people with PCOS.21
But what does this have to do with having a beer or a gin and tonic?

Well, insulin helps sugar move from your blood into your body’s cells so it can be used for energy.22 When you’re insulin resistant, it means that your normal insulin levels have less of an effect on your body, so it needs to produce more insulin than normal to have the same effect.22

Alcohol also contains lots of sugar, which can increase your natural insulin levels.23

Both of these can lead to worsening PCOS symptoms.20 This doesn’t mean that you need to cut out alcohol altogether, but you should try to drink any alcoholic drinks alongside food.24

You should also try and choose low-sugar alcohol where you can – so swap vodka with lemonade for vodka with soda water, or white wine for red to help keep your blood sugars under control.
However, be mindful that some alcoholic drinks like beers and ciders contain carbs which, in turn, can cause an initial spike in your blood sugar levels and may contribute to the worsening of PCOS symptoms – so it’s best to seek alternatives such as spirits, dry wines and possibly the cheeky odd Prosecco.25,26

In addition, it’s good practice to limit your alcohol to no more than 14 units a week, and this should be spread over the course of three days or more – ideally not in one sitting!

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, is also common in people with PCOS. If you already have a fatty liver, as many people do and don’t realise, drinking alcohol regularly can make PCOS symptoms worse – however, more research needs to be conducted in order to confirm this.27,28

The final say

There you have it – the lowdown on alcohol and periods. So, what’s the bottom line?

It’s important to raise a glass to informed choices. While having a glass of wine can seem like a tempting option during your period, it’s worth considering the impact that it has on your hormonal health and whether or not it’ll actually make you feel better after all.

If you’re dealing with PCOS, it’s especially important to be mindful of your alcohol intake. After all, it can mess with your hormones and make your symptoms harder to cope with. The same can be said for endometriosis. And of course, let’s not forget the effect that booze can have on your PMS.

Understanding more about the link between periods and alcohol will help you to make informed choices about your body and your health. Cheers to that!

Sources

  1. Carroll, H., et al. ‘The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Menstrual Cycle: A Review of the Literature’. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 2015;18(6):773–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-015-0568-2.
  2. Nohara, M., et al. ‘A Menstrual Cycle and Menstrual Pain Problems and Related Risk Factors among Japanese Female Workers.’ Industrial Health 2011, 49, 228–234. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/49/2/49_MS1047/_pdf/-char/ja
  3. Polhuis, Kristel., et al. ‘The Diuretic Action of Weak and Strong Alcoholic Beverages in Elderly Men: A Randomized Diet-Controlled Crossover Trial’. Nutrients. 2017;9(7):660. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070660.
  4. Bear, T., et al. ‘A Preliminary Study on How Hypohydration Affects Pain Perception’. Psychophysiology, 2016;53(5):605–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12610.
  5. Torkan, B., et al. ‘The Role of Water Intake in the Severity of Pain and Menstrual Distress among Females Suffering from Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Semi-Experimental Study’. BMC Women’s Health. 2021;21(1):40. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01184-w.
  6. NHS. PMS (premenstrual syndrome) [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 April 17]. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pre-menstrual-syndrome/
  7. Most, D., et al. ‘Molecular Basis of Alcoholism’. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 2014;125:89–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-62619-6.00006-9.
  8. Fernández MdM, Saulyte J, Inskip HM, et al. Premenstrual syndrome and alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2018;8:e019490. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019490. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/8/3/e019490.full.pdf
  9. Chun, H., & Doo, M. Sleep Quality in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome-Related Variables. Healthcare. 2023 May; 11(10): 1492. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11101492
  10. Jehan, S., et al. Sleep and Premenstrual Syndrome. Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders, 3(5). 2016; 3(5): 106. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5323065/
  11. Colrain, I., et al. ‘Alcohol and the Sleeping Brain’. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2014;125:415–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-62619-6.00024-0.
  12. Ebrahim, I. O., et al. Alcohol and Sleep I: Effects on Normal Sleep. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2013; 37(4), 539`-549. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12006
  13. Fernández, M., et al. ‘Premenstrual Syndrome and Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis’. BMJ Open, 2018;8(3):e019490. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019490.
  14. NHS. Endometriosis [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 April 17]. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/endometriosis/
  15. W. Rogers, P. A., et al. Priorities for Endometriosis Research: Recommendations From an International Consensus Workshop. Reproductive Sciences. 2009; 16(4), 335-346. https://doi.org/10.1177/1933719108330568
  16. Li Piani, L, et al. ‘A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Endometriosis: An Update from 2012’. Scientific Reports. 2022;12: 19122. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-21173-9.
  17. Fabio Parazzini, MD., et al. A metaanalysis on alcohol consumption and risk of endometriosis. Research | General Gynecology. 2013; Volume 209, Issue 2, P106.E1-106.E10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2013.05.039
  18. Yu, K., et al. 'Estrogen Receptor Function: Impact on the Human Endometrium'. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022;13:827724. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.827724.
  19. NHS. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [Internet]. [cited 2024 Feb 21]. Accessed at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos/.
  20. Barber, T., et al. ‘Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Implications for Pathogenesis and Novel Management Strategies’. Clinical Medicine Insights. Reproductive Health 2019;13:1179558119874042. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179558119874042.
  21. Traub, M. 'Assessing and treating insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome'. World J Diabetes. 2011;2(3):33–40. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v2.i3.33.
  22. CDC. Insulin Resistance and Diabetes [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 April 17]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/insulin-resistance.html
  23. British Nutrition Foundation. Sugar [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 April 17]. Available from: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/nutritional-information/sugar/
  24. Mount Sinai. Diabetes and alcohol [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 April 17]. Available from: https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/selfcare-instructions/diabetes-and-alcohol
  25. GOV.UK. Chapter 12: Alcohol [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 April 17]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/delivering-better-oral-health-an-evidence-based-toolkit-for-prevention/chapter-12-alcohol
  26. Diabetes UK. Alcohol and diabetes [Internet]. 2023 [cited 2024 April 17]. Available from: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/guide-to-diabetes/enjoy-food/what-to-drink-with-diabetes/alcohol-and-diabetes
  27. Jarvis, H., et al. ‘Does Moderate Alcohol Consumption Accelerate the Progression of Liver Disease in NAFLD? A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis’. BMJ Open. 2022;12(1):e049767. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049767
  28. Vassilatou, E. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2014; 20(26), 8351-8363. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i26.8351.
 

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